Gao M, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Saide PE, Liu Z, Xin J, Shan Y, Wang Z. Chemical and Meteorological Feedbacks in the Formation of Intense Haze Events. In: Bouarar I, Wang X, Brasseur GP Air Pollution in Eastern Asia: An Integrated Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing ; 2017. pp. 437–452. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Intense haze events in China provide ideal opportunities to study meteorological and chemical feedbacks due to extremely high aerosol loadings. In this chapter, an online coupled meteorology-chemistry model, WRF-Chem, is applied to simulate impacts of aerosol feedbacks on meteorology and air quality during the January 2010 haze event over the North China Plain (NCP). The results show that the model reasonably reproduces well most meteorological, chemical and optical variables. Aerosols during this haze event can reduce surface downward shortwave radiation by 25.7% and planetary boundary layer height by 14.9%. Due to aerosol feedbacks, PM2.5 concentrations in urban Beijing increase by 11.2% at 14:00. The severe haze also enhances cloud droplet number concentrations, which can further affect cloud chemistry. These results indicate that aerosol feedbacks in the NCP, especially in urban regions, are important and should be considered when develop air pollution control and climate mitigation strategies.
Gao M, Saide PE, Xin J, Wang Y, Liu Z, Wang Y, Wang Z, Pagowski M, Guttikunda SK, Carmichael GR. Estimates of Health Impacts and Radiative Forcing in Winter Haze in Eastern China through Constraints of Surface PM2.5 Predictions. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2017;51 (4) :2178-2185. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Thompson G, Eidhammer T, da Silva AM, Pierce RB, Carmichael GR. Assessment of biomass burning smoke influence on environmental conditions for multiyear tornado outbreaks by combining aerosol-aware microphysics and fire emission constraints. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (17) :10,294–10,311. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Carmichael GR, Saide PE, Lu Z, Yu M, Streets DG, Wang Z. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2016;16 (18) :11837–11851. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Saide PE, Yu M, Xin J, Liu Z, Wang Z. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the \hack\newlineNorth China Plain. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2016;16 (3) :1673–1691. Publisher's Version
Yu P, Toon OB, Bardeen CG, Bucholtz A, Rosenlof KH, Saide PE, Da Silva A, Ziemba LD, Thornhill KL, Jimenez J-L, et al. Surface dimming by the 2013 Rim Fire simulated by a sectional aerosol model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (12) :7079–7087. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Mena-Carrasco M, Tolvett S, Hernandez P, Carmichael GR. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (1) :558–575. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Peterson DA, Da Silva A, Anderson B, Ziemba LD, Diskin G, Sachse G, Hair J, Butler C, Fenn M, et al. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2015;42 (9) :3609–3618. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Spak SN, Pierce RB, Otkin JA, Schaack TK, Heidinger AK, da Silva AM, Kacenelenbogen M, Redemann J, Carmichael GR. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2015;42 (3) :956–965. Publisher's Version
Bocquet M, Elbern H, Eskes H, Hirtl M, Żabkar R, Carmichael GR, Flemming J, Inness A, Pagowski M, Pérez Camaño JL, et al. Data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models: current status and future prospects for coupled chemistry meteorology models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (10) :5325–5358. Publisher's Version
Kulkarni S, Sobhani N, Miller-Schulze JP, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Solomon PA, Saide PE, Spak SN, Cheng YF, Denier van der Gon HAC, et al. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM$_2.5$ in Central Asia. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (4) :1683–1705. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Guttikunda SK, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Liu Z, Stanier CO, Saide PE, Yu M. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2015;511 (Supplement C) :553 - 561. Publisher's Version
Wyant MC, Bretherton CS, Wood R, Carmichael GR, Clarke A, Fast J, George R, Gustafson Jr. WI, Hannay C, Lauer A, et al. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (1) :153–172. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Kim J, Song CH, Choi M, Cheng Y, Carmichael GR. Assimilation of next generation geostationary aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2014;41 (24) :9188–9196. Publisher's Version
Nordmann S, Cheng YF, Carmichael GR, Yu M, Denier van der Gon HAC, Zhang Q, Saide PE, Pöschl U, Su H, Birmili W, et al. Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2014;14 (23) :12683–12699. Publisher's Version
Mena-Carrasco M, Saide P, Delgado R, Hernandez P, Spak S, Molina L, Carmichael G, Jiang X. Regional climate feedbacks in Central Chile and their effect on air quality episodes and meteorology. Urban Climate [Internet]. 2014;10 (Part 5) :771 - 781. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Carmichael GR, Liu Z, Schwartz CS, Lin HC, da Silva AM, Hyer E. Aerosol optical depth assimilation for a size-resolved sectional model: impacts of observationally constrained, multi-wavelength and fine mode retrievals on regional scale analyses and forecasts. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2013;13 (20) :10425–10444. Publisher's Version
Twohy CH, Anderson JR, Toohey DW, Andrejczuk M, Adams A, Lytle M, George RC, Wood R, Saide P, Spak S, et al. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2013;13 (5) :2541–2562. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Carmichael GR, Spak SN, Minnis P, Ayers JK. Improving aerosol distributions below clouds by assimilating satellite-retrieved cloud droplet number. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2012;109 (30) :11939-11943. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Limitations in current capabilities to constrain aerosols adversely impact atmospheric simulations. Typically, aerosol burdens within models are constrained employing satellite aerosol optical properties, which are not available under cloudy conditions. Here we set the first steps to overcome the long-standing limitation that aerosols cannot be constrained using satellite remote sensing under cloudy conditions. We introduce a unique data assimilation method that uses cloud droplet number (Nd) retrievals to improve predicted below-cloud aerosol mass and number concentrations. The assimilation, which uses an adjoint aerosol activation parameterization, improves agreement with independent Nd observations and with in situ aerosol measurements below shallow cumulus clouds. The impacts of a single assimilation on aerosol and cloud forecasts extend beyond 24 h. Unlike previous methods, this technique can directly improve predictions of near-surface fine mode aerosols responsible for human health impacts and low-cloud radiative forcing. Better constrained aerosol distributions will help improve health effects studies, atmospheric emissions estimates, and air-quality, weather, and climate predictions.
Saide PE, Spak SN, Carmichael GR, Mena-Carrasco MA, Yang Q, Howell S, Leon DC, Snider JR, Bandy AR, Collett JL, et al. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2012;12 (6) :3045–3064. Publisher's Version