Mallet M, Nabat P, Zuidema P, Redemann J, Sayer AM, Stengel M, Schmidt S, Cochrane S, Burton S, Ferrare R, et al. Simulation of the transport, vertical distribution, optical properties and radiative impact of smoke aerosols with the ALADIN regional climate model during the ORACLES-2016 and LASIC experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions [Internet]. 2018;2018 :1–49. Publisher's Version
Lennartson EM, WANG J, Gu J, Castro Garcia L, Ge C, Gao M, Choi M, Saide PE, Carmichael GR, Kim J, et al. Diurnal variation of aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in South Korea: a synthesis from AERONET, satellite (GOCI), KORUS-AQ observation, and the WRF-Chem model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2018;18 (20) :15125–15144. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Steinhoff DF, Kosovic B, Weil J, Downey N, Blewitt D, Hanna SR, Delle Monache L. Evaluating Methods To Estimate Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Facilities Using LES Simulations. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2018;52 (19) :11206-11214. Publisher's Version
Diamond MS, Dobracki A, Freitag S, Small Griswold JD, Heikkila A, Howell SG, Kacarab ME, Podolske JR, Saide PE, Wood R. Time-dependent entrainment of smoke presents an observational challenge for assessing aerosol–cloud interactions over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2018;18 (19) :14623–14636. Publisher's Version
Burton SP, Hostetler CA, Cook AL, Hair JW, Seaman ST, Scola S, Harper DB, Smith JA, Fenn MA, Ferrare RA, et al. Calibration of a high spectral resolution lidar using a Michelson interferometer, with data examples from ORACLES. Appl. Opt. [Internet]. 2018;57 (21) :6061–6075. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The NASA Langley airborne second-generation High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) uses a density-tuned field-widened Michelson interferometer to implement the HSRL technique at 355&\#x00A0;nm. The Michelson interferometer optically separates the received backscattered light between two channels, one of which is dominated by molecular backscattering, while the other contains most of the light backscattered by particles. This interferometer achieves high and stable contrast ratio, defined as the ratio of particulate backscatter signal received by the two channels. We show that a high and stable contrast ratio is critical for precise and accurate backscatter and extinction retrievals. Here, we present retrieval equations that take into account the incomplete separation of particulate and molecular backscatter in the measurement channels. We also show how the accuracy of the contrast ratio assessment propagates to error in the optical properties. For both backscattering and extinction, larger errors are produced by underestimates of the contrast ratio (compared to overestimates), more extreme aerosol loading, and&\#x2014;most critically&\#x2014;smaller true contrast ratios. We show example results from HSRL-2 aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft from the 2016 ORACLES field campaign in the southeast Atlantic, off the coast of Africa, during the biomass burning season. We include a case study where smoke aerosol in two adjacent altitude layers showed opposite differences in extinction- and backscatter-related &\#x00C5;ngstr&\#x00F6;m exponents and a reversal of the lidar ratio spectral dependence, signatures which are shown to be consistent with a relatively modest difference in smoke particle size.
Gao M, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Saide PE, Liu Z, Xin J, Shan Y, Wang Z. Chemical and Meteorological Feedbacks in the Formation of Intense Haze Events. In: Bouarar I, Wang X, Brasseur GP Air Pollution in Eastern Asia: An Integrated Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing ; 2017. pp. 437–452. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Intense haze events in China provide ideal opportunities to study meteorological and chemical feedbacks due to extremely high aerosol loadings. In this chapter, an online coupled meteorology-chemistry model, WRF-Chem, is applied to simulate impacts of aerosol feedbacks on meteorology and air quality during the January 2010 haze event over the North China Plain (NCP). The results show that the model reasonably reproduces well most meteorological, chemical and optical variables. Aerosols during this haze event can reduce surface downward shortwave radiation by 25.7% and planetary boundary layer height by 14.9%. Due to aerosol feedbacks, PM2.5 concentrations in urban Beijing increase by 11.2% at 14:00. The severe haze also enhances cloud droplet number concentrations, which can further affect cloud chemistry. These results indicate that aerosol feedbacks in the NCP, especially in urban regions, are important and should be considered when develop air pollution control and climate mitigation strategies.
Gao M, Saide PE, Xin J, Wang Y, Liu Z, Wang Y, Wang Z, Pagowski M, Guttikunda SK, Carmichael GR. Estimates of Health Impacts and Radiative Forcing in Winter Haze in Eastern China through Constraints of Surface PM2.5 Predictions. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2017;51 (4) :2178-2185. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Thompson G, Eidhammer T, da Silva AM, Pierce RB, Carmichael GR. Assessment of biomass burning smoke influence on environmental conditions for multiyear tornado outbreaks by combining aerosol-aware microphysics and fire emission constraints. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (17) :10,294–10,311. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Carmichael GR, Saide PE, Lu Z, Yu M, Streets DG, Wang Z. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2016;16 (18) :11837–11851. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Saide PE, Yu M, Xin J, Liu Z, Wang Z. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the \hack\newlineNorth China Plain. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2016;16 (3) :1673–1691. Publisher's Version
Yu P, Toon OB, Bardeen CG, Bucholtz A, Rosenlof KH, Saide PE, Da Silva A, Ziemba LD, Thornhill KL, Jimenez J-L, et al. Surface dimming by the 2013 Rim Fire simulated by a sectional aerosol model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (12) :7079–7087. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Mena-Carrasco M, Tolvett S, Hernandez P, Carmichael GR. Air quality forecasting for winter-time PM2.5 episodes occurring in multiple cities in central and southern Chile. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2016;121 (1) :558–575. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Peterson DA, Da Silva A, Anderson B, Ziemba LD, Diskin G, Sachse G, Hair J, Butler C, Fenn M, et al. Revealing important nocturnal and day-to-day variations in fire smoke emissions through a multiplatform inversion. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2015;42 (9) :3609–3618. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Spak SN, Pierce RB, Otkin JA, Schaack TK, Heidinger AK, da Silva AM, Kacenelenbogen M, Redemann J, Carmichael GR. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2015;42 (3) :956–965. Publisher's Version
Bocquet M, Elbern H, Eskes H, Hirtl M, Żabkar R, Carmichael GR, Flemming J, Inness A, Pagowski M, Pérez Camaño JL, et al. Data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models: current status and future prospects for coupled chemistry meteorology models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (10) :5325–5358. Publisher's Version
Kulkarni S, Sobhani N, Miller-Schulze JP, Shafer MM, Schauer JJ, Solomon PA, Saide PE, Spak SN, Cheng YF, Denier van der Gon HAC, et al. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM$_2.5$ in Central Asia. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (4) :1683–1705. Publisher's Version
Gao M, Guttikunda SK, Carmichael GR, Wang Y, Liu Z, Stanier CO, Saide PE, Yu M. Health impacts and economic losses assessment of the 2013 severe haze event in Beijing area. Science of The Total Environment [Internet]. 2015;511 (Supplement C) :553 - 561. Publisher's Version
Wyant MC, Bretherton CS, Wood R, Carmichael GR, Clarke A, Fast J, George R, Gustafson Jr. WI, Hannay C, Lauer A, et al. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2015;15 (1) :153–172. Publisher's Version
Saide PE, Kim J, Song CH, Choi M, Cheng Y, Carmichael GR. Assimilation of next generation geostationary aerosol optical depth retrievals to improve air quality simulations. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2014;41 (24) :9188–9196. Publisher's Version
Nordmann S, Cheng YF, Carmichael GR, Yu M, Denier van der Gon HAC, Zhang Q, Saide PE, Pöschl U, Su H, Birmili W, et al. Atmospheric black carbon and warming effects influenced by the source and absorption enhancement in central Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2014;14 (23) :12683–12699. Publisher's Version