Flood hazard across the western United States (US) has generally shown decreasing trends in recent decades. This region's extreme streamflow is highly influenced by natural variability, which could either mask or amplify anthropogenic streamflow trends. In this study, we utilize a technique known as dynamical adjustment to assess historical (1970–2020) annual maximum 1-day streamflow (Qx1d) from unregulated basins across the western US with and without the impact of natural variability. After removing natural variability, the fraction of basins with a positive (>5%) trend in Qx1d shifts from 25% to 53%. Basins with increasing (decreasing) Qx1d trends after dynamical adjustment exhibit weak (strong) drying, and furthermore are associated with intensifying precipitation extremes and/or large decreases in snowpack. Increasing flood hazard will likely emerge for such basins as the current phase of natural decadal variability shifts, and anthropogenic signals continue to intensify.